HYDRATION

 

Hydration Power Point (click link to open Power Point)

 

Science Part I

 

Сelluvation. Science inside.
FOR UNDERSTANDING CELLUVATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Part 1

 

Apart from air, there is no substance more important than water for organic life. And hydrogen water (water saturated with molecular hydrogen) is the best drinking water of known types of water, since hydrogen is an essential chemical element involved in redox reactions. But at the same time, it is extremely volatile and retains its activity for a very short time. For example, in glass or plastic packaging, after 15 minutes, instead of hydrogen water, we already have ordinary drinking water.

 

This deficiency can be partially eliminated by using a hydrogen water generator directly, but factors such as volatility and short duration of hydrogen activity do not change from this. This made us look for new ways to solve the maximum use of the hydrogen properties that we need. And this technology was developed and successfully applied by an American company called Celluvation.

 

Why are we getting older?

 

The main mechanism of aging is:
1. Metabolic disorders.
2. Dehydration.
3. Intoxication.
4. Violation of the disposal of toxic substances.
5. Violation of adaptation mechanisms
6. Violation of the immune system.
7. Factors contributing to the development of the above effects.

- The main reason of the start of pathological processes is oxidative stress.
- A factor in the development of oxidative stress is an increase in peroxide compounds.
- The reason leading to oxidative stress is an insufficient number of substances that regulate the physiological reactions of the body.

 

The function of hydrogen in nature.


Hydrogen as an atom, has a low molecular weight. Hydrogen. Symbol, H. Atomic Number, 1. Number of Protons, 1. Number of Neutrons, 0. Number of Electrons, 1 which gives it the ability to be very active. But at the same time hydrogen’s activity lasts a short time, as it is very volatile.

 

In nature, plant’s green pigment contains carbon dioxide CO2. The hydrogen emitted by the Sun, falling on the surface of a green leaf, knocks out an oxygen atom from the CO2. Thus, oxygen enters the environment. The hydrogen atom, combining with the carbon residue, forms carbohydrates, which is a source of food for living organisms.


Celluvation, having studied the concept of the frequency structure of hydrogen as a source of activation of metabolic processes, applied this effect when creating its products, necessary to activate longevity, rejuvenation of the body and normalization of its processes.

 

In its research and development, the company paid special attention to the balance of water exchange in the body. The balance between intracellular and extracellular water is particularly important. If there is no water - there is no life, because water is an excellent solvent of all electrolytes, oxygen and other nutrients necessary for the life of the organism. Its function of dissolving and removing toxic substances from the body is also very important. This is a function of extracellular water.

 

Intracellular water is made up of 2/3 of the volume of water that is in a body, extracellular water is 1/3 of the volume of water in the body. The main function of intracellular water is the transfer of energy and the transport of molecules to create this energy. Any disproportion of these concentrations leads to the development of the aging processes and the development of various diseases, including oncological processes.

 

Water is the basis of life. The loss of water by 1% leads to the appearance of pronounced symptoms: headache, irritability, muscle weakness, constipation, discoloration and urine that smells. With more pronounced dehydration processes, serious diseases appear, including death, especially in children and the elderly. Extreme manifestations of dehydration are observed in children in the first year of life. Loss of 2% water equals a quick death.


How much water is needed for an adult? The calculation of the average amount of fluid for an adult is 35 ml of fluid per 1 kg of weight. Of this, 70-75% is pure water. It must always be remembered, it is the basis of our health, our youth. In the hot season, the consumption of clean drinking water should be increased by 25%.

 

When using Celluvation products, you should follow these water intake recommendations. It is essential for the active elimination of toxins (detoxification process).

 

Ingredients include Baobab Fruit (Organic), Silica from Bamboo, Silica from Horsetail Extract (Equisetum Arvense Plant), Ancient Sea Salt, Rooibos (Organic), Glycine, L-Lysine HCL, L-Proline, Acerola Cherry (Organic), Ascorbic Acid, etc.

 

To increase the bioavailability of the substances that make up these plants, they were turned into fine powder, which allows them to be rapidly absorbed to achieve the goals set by the product.

The technology of the product.

 

1. Chemistry.
2. Physics.
3. Informatics.


1. Chemistry is a method of obtaining substances found in plant and mineral sources, the maximum absorption of these substances and their complete metabolism.

 

2. Physics - the definition of the most beneficial properties of these substances, their ability to go through the most complete cycle of exposure with minimal formation of toxic substances and side effects.

 

3. Informatics. Evolutionarily, our body consists of a specific set of chemicals and physical properties. Computer science combines these phenomena into a single structural system and distributes substances to the necessary points where they will bring the maximum effect to the human body.

 

The source of our life is the natural cycle of hydrogen - the donor of energy sent to Earth by the Sun, and as well as by the earth’s crust. It allows plants to grow, to create the necessary substances that are our food, with embedded energy information. The process is very complex, time consuming, imperceptible.

 

Using modern achievements of computer science, the company combined all the scientific factors of Chemistry, Physics and Informatics in the creation of the Celluvation products.

 

One of the features of Celluvation's products is the use of a bioresonance effect at the cellular level, created using certain information-wave characteristics recorded on the crystal carrier. Bioresonance leads to a tissue response that is required to trigger the required biochemical and biophysical processes. That in turn leads to the creation of conditions, for properly flowing, balancing and healing processes.

 

Thus, taking as a basis plants containing various types of chemical compounds, applying the methods of obtaining data from substances with the maximum preservation of their properties, introducing in the information field the frequency characteristics of hydrogen and other necessary components, obtained a highly effective product that helps preserve our youth, vigor, working capacity, sexual activity, increase the life cycle of various organs and systems of the human body.

 

Each product produced by the company consists of a specific set of plant products, plus 100% frequency of hydrogen and several other frequency characteristics (depending on the purpose of the product). This combination makes the product highly effective, affordable, with a pronounced effect of action, with each product having its own set of biologically active substances and frequency characteristics, which determines its directionality of action on the body.


Part 2


The biochemical composition of the complex YOUTH (Youth): Baobab Fruit (Organic), Silica from Bamboo, Silica from Horsetail Extract (Equisetum Arvense Plant), Ancient Sea Salt, Rooibos (Organic), Glycine, L-Lysine HCL, L-Proline, Acerola Cherry ( Organic), Ascorbic Acid.

 

Baobab Fruit (baobab fruit) is a main source of vitamin C, the concentration is 10 times higher than the concentration of vitamin C in citrus, which is a powerful donor of antioxidants.


Silica from Horsetail (powder horsetail) - contains a unique substance - silicic acid, which contributes to the rapid removal of various toxic substances.

 

Silica from Bamboo (bamboo powder) also contains silicic acid, which also gives a good effect of removing toxic substances.

 

Ancient Sea Salt is the largest, most common donor of mineral salts - contains 84 trace elements essential for humans ..

 

Traditional African tea Rooibos is a good donor of the antioxidant complex.

 

Also contains amino acids - Glycine, L-Lysine HCL, L-Proline.

 

Glycine (Glycine) - is a precursor of proteins, a neurotransmitter, one of the important amino acids necessary for the human body to maintain normal life. It helps to reduce emotional stress and increases mental performance.

 

L-Lysine HCL (Lysine) - an essential amino acid, is not synthesized in the body. L-Lysine has antiherpetic and mild antidepressant-like effect,

 

L-Proline (Proline) - an amino acid essential for cartilage and skin. L-Proline improves the structure of the skin, promotes the formation of collagen (is its main component), prevents rapid aging.

 

Acerola Cherry (Barbados cherry) - contains a wide range of natural phytonutrients (for example, vitamins, minerals, such polyphenolic antioxidant compounds like flavonoids and anthocyanins).

 

Ascorbic Acid (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) is necessary for the normal functioning of the connective and bone tissue, an antioxidant, performs the biological functions of a reducing agent and a coenzyme of certain metabolic processes. The body does not produce Vitamin C, and only comes with food.


YOUTH is a pronounced sorbent, which makes it possible to remove toxic substances from the body, a source of macro and microelements, as well as a source of antioxidants, which has a positive effect on health and external beauty. Youth contains in its composition of the trace elements, silicon, which is fundamental to healthy skin, hair, nails. Therefore, this product was named YOUTH (Youth).


The frequency characteristics of hydrogen, introduced in the information field, contributes to the activation of active molecules of plant sources. This ultimately leads to an increase in the quantitative composition of endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, which increases the body's defence against oxidative stress.

 

What good is hydrogen - it acts selectively. For the normal operation of the body, the body needs some free radicals or reactions with them, so we do not need to neutralize them all. For example, nitrous oxide. This is a free radical, but it is important for the expansion of blood vessels, this is what nitroglycerin does - it increases nitrogen oxide, or Viagra and others, they are all associated with nitrogen oxide. This is a free radical that does not need to be neutralized.

 

Hydrogen is a selective antioxidant that neutralizes only the most cytotoxic radicals, that is, destructive cells, like the OH-neutral hydroxyl radicals. What's happening? Hydroxyl radicals do not participate in cellular signalling and other things. They simply neutralize themselves, destroying our DNA, proteins, cell membranes, causing large cytotoxic damages.

 

Hydrogen is bioavailable, as it is able to penetrate into cells, mitochondria, and it neutralizes hydroxyl radicals, turning them into water. The by-product is only water, and this is another advantage of hydrogen. It cannot be compared with other antioxidants - there is only water left after it has done its job. For example, vitamin C donates its electrons and is left without electrons, and the body is forced to do something about the vitamin c residue left. It must get rid of that waste now, possibly using the equivalent of a glutathione molecule or something else. It must be cleaned or metabolized. Hydrogen eliminates the hydroxyl radical, the by-product is only water. So, we have high bioavailability and selectivity.

 

Another useful feature is that hydrogen supports the body’s antioxidants.

 

Life is a balance between oxidation and reduction. Our body has many oxidative components that form when we breathe. From 3 to 4% of the oxygen we breathe can turn into these free radicals and reactive oxygen components. So, oxidation occurs in our body, and there is a mechanism that helps to neutralize free radicals.

Such important antioxidants as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and many other enzymes and peptides are known. They are produced by our body, and there is a transcription factor called NRF2 – and it is the main switch of the cellular defence system. Its activation leads to an increase in the synthesis of protective enzymes that fight off oxidants, free radicals and toxins, and to the replenishment of used antioxidants, for example, glutathione. Studies show that hydrogen has a protective effect by reducing oxidative stress through activation of NRF2.


Important: studies have shown that 1 particle of the glutathione enzyme neutralizes 1 million free radicals per second, in contrast to the ratio of 1: 1 when using vegetables, fruits or antioxidant dietary supplements as a source of antioxidants.

 

The activation of NRF2 leads to an increase in the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and a subsequent decrease in oxidants.


Hydrogen, which can affect all of this, carries great potential for our cells. The fact is that it does not necessarily increase the levels of glutathione or other antioxidants beyond normal homeostasis, because life depends on reducing oxidation.


You can have both oxidative stress and reductive stress. You may have too much reduction, then you do not need an excessively high level of various antioxidants. Antioxidants in excess (above homeostasis) can harm the body, increasing the risk of disease. Excessive intake of supplements and antioxidants in pills - vitamin E, vitamin C, and so on, at a high level, when you take them, can be harmful. Studies show that they often have a detrimental side effect that can increase mortality, increase the risk of developing cancer or cardiovascular diseases. This may be because you are disturbing redox homeostasis.


Since hydrogen acts selectively, it eliminates only the most toxic free radicals and supports the endogenous antioxidants of the organism itself. Thus, the immune system, increasing and maintaining glutathione at a normal level, which can be reduced because of the influence of various environmental toxins or pesticides.

 

Another reason why hydrogen can reduce oxidative stress is the property of cell modulation. In our cells there are complex complexes capable of producing radicals that can be toxic to our body. When they are too active, it can lead to oxidative stress and oxidative damage.  This can be the cause of various diseases, inflammations, etc.

If you compare hydrogen with other antioxidants, it is highly bioavailable, very selective and has no side effects and it supports endogenous antioxidants of the immune system and has the property of cellular modulation, which, first of all, prevents the formation of toxic radicals.


So, as you see the Celluvation Crystals are a Godsend to us, in order that we can be as healthy as possible.

 

 

Science Part II

 

We all know that we are mostly water and that 60% of body weight is water.

 

Water is lost everyday form our body (via sweat, breathing and when we go to the toilet) and if we do not drink enough, we become dehydrated.

Most of us do not drink until we feel thirsty. We have signals that are sent from within our brains (known as the lamina terminalis) that talk to our intra thoracic baroreceptors via the hindbrain that tells us we are thirsty.  When we feel thirsty, we are already 1% dehydrated.

 

Water is needed by our body to:

 

Water is both inside our cells (known as intracellular) and outside our cells (extracellular, which baths our cells and our blood) and when we lose water it is form both types of water.

Extracellular water accounts for 1/3 of our total body water and is important for the movement of electrolytes (salts), allows for delivery of oxygen to our cells and clears waste.

Intracellular water is the other 2/3 found inside our cells and is important for transportation of molecules and energy production.

 

EXCESS EXTRACELLULAR WATER

If you have excess extracellular water – it is an indication of health risks.

These include:

 

IS IT BETTER TO HAVE MORE INTRACELLULAR WATER?

Yes! Increased intracellular water can signal healthy changes! Increased Intracellular water is seen with

The overall effect is you become younger, leaner and healthier!

WATER… WATER… WATER…

Water can be found in food and drinks and of course as pure water! Did you know that our body can survive for up to 50 days with no food but only a few days without water?

 

HOW DO WE KNOW IF YOUR BODY DOES NOT HAVE ENOUGH WATER?

 

When we are 1% dehydrated, we see the following symptoms:

 

HOW MUCH WATER DO WE NEED?

 

The amount is dependent on what we are doing. On average:

 

HYDRATION USING CELLUVATION CRYSTALS

BEFORE USING

 

12 hours later after taking Celluvation hydration crystals and drinking 2 litres of water

 

 

One month after taking Celluvation hydration crystals and drinking 2 litres of water per day

 

REFERENCES:

Benelam B and Wyness L (2010)

Hydration and health: a review.

Nutrition Bulletin Volume 35 March 2010

British Nutrition Foundation Healthy hydration guide 2010

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendation for water intake

Jéquier E & Constant F (2010) Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64(2): 115-23.

 

 

The Science behind Our Products

The most common question asked is: What is in it? The better question would be: What chemistry ingredients are in it? This is what people are really asking. However, this has very little to do with why the product works.

 

Three sciences, combined into this product, make it work:

1. Chemistry

2. Physics

3. Information Sciences

 

The real question to ask is: What ingredients from chemistry, physics, and information sciences are in the product? The reason most people do not know to ask the question in this format is that doing so is very new to most people. Nothing stated here has been proven; it is 100% theory, but not for long. We are beginning to gather a great deal of hard, scientific, results-driven data.

 

There are many accepted existing theories. We cannot change matter, but we can change the way it behaves. Again, yes, we are feely admitting this is 100% theory, no proof. No scientific data at this time back it up. However, many people are getting great results with the product. So, let's get back to the chemistry: The chemistry ingredients in the product are baobab fruit (organic), rooibos (organic), acerola cherry (organic), silica from bamboo (organic), silica from horsetail extract equisetum arvense plant (organic), L-proline, L-lysine HCL, glycine, ascorbic acid, and Himalayan salt.
 

These ingredients are really good for youth regeneration; however, to us, they form the base upon which we are building. These unique combinations of ingredients were chosen for a variety of reasons; for example, they are super fruits from South Africa sourced from organic, non-GMO crops. Also, they are excellent for youth regeneration, and they have unique mineral profiles because of the soil they grow in. We build this supplement using the chemistry or physical ingredients. Then we move to steps 2 and 3, which involve the physics and information sciences and apply them to the chemistry of our products. 
 

We live in a hydrogen life cycle. The sun is a hydrogen furnace that sends hydrogen energy to Earth. Hydrogen is what allows plants to grow. We eat the plants and our body extracts the hydrogen energy from them. Our body goes through an extremely complicated time-consuming process to extract the hydrogen from the foods we eat.
 

In 1937, Albert Szent-Györgyi won a Nobel Prize for his research on the benefits of hydrogen. CLICK HERE TO LEARN MORE

 

Albert Szent-Györgyi Lecture

 

Szent-Györgyi demonstrated that the benefits of hydrogen are significant. However, the problem is that hydrogen is difficult to stabilize since it has an atomic weight of one proton, one electron, and one neutron. Hydrogen is number one on the periodic table, which means it is the lightest element on the periodic table. Hence, it is difficult to stabilize something that light in any product. Scientists from around the world know this and are trying to stabilize it, but so far have not succeeded.

 

Luckily for us, we have two other fields of science to draw on to solve this difficult problem of delivering the benefits of hydrogen to us. Using physics and computer science, we can extract the essence of hydrogen and turn it into an algorithm (unique frequency wave form signature). Once in the computer, we can enhance that and, using the power of physics, make matter; in our case, rooibos behaves differently, that is, like hydrogen. You would have to be experienced in sub-space matter to understand exactly how this works. That being said, Celluvation is generating results that support our customers with positive experiences and enhancements in their life.
 

In short, what we are doing is adding harmonic ingredients (physics and information science) to chemistry ingredients. This makes total sense to a computer programmer. However, if you are a chemist, unfortunately, you will have difficulty following this because it has very little to do with chemistry. Computer science is all about multi-tasking and getting the most efficient code to do the maximum amount of work in the fastest amount of time, with the most extreme results that we can generate to get a very specific job done. This is basically a results-driven approach. We seek to find out what end results we want to achieve and begin the process from there. This is commonly known today as "bio-hacking."
 

Our Cellular Rejuvenation Crystals are really just a concentrate. Each jar has two sets of ingredients, chemistry ingredients and harmonic ingredients. As soon as you add one gram of the crystals to 8 oz. of water, the water immediately shifts to the harmonic ingredient or frequency of hydrogen. Again, there is no physical or chemistry hydrogen in our product. It is 100% frequency hydrogen!
 

If you see or use a product on the market claiming to have or use hydrogen, know that the challenge with chemistry hydrogen deliverance to the body is that there is no way to stabilize it. Once you do get it into the body, much of it is lost. However, with the frequency of hydrogen, you get 100% of it in an extremely efficient, fast, economical, and easy-to-use way!
 

How can Celluvation improve your heart rate? 
 

Heart rate variability (HRV) is the mathematical analysis of the time between each heartbeat, providing indicators of the autonomic nervous system activity. This happens to be the gold standard on estimating your stress level. We did a test to show the HRV before drinking the Celluvation crystals and then after.  We had a test subject drink the supplement consistently for seven days.

 

The test subject’s heart rate dropped from 81 to 72 and the subject’s longevity reading (SDNN) increased from 33.5 to 44.0, an increase of 24%!  At the same time, the heart rate indicators showed that the heart rate after taking Celluvation decreased. Also, the SDNN, a reflection of autonomic nervous system activity, increased (the higher the number, the better.)

 

June 10, 2015

 

June 23, 2015

 

Bio Energetic Assesment

 

 

 

Additional Science Perspective:

Why do people need energy? Most people would answer, “If I have plenty of energy, I’ll feel good and feel like doing things.”

 

For most of us, energy means a feeling of vitality that lets us work and play for long periods of time. A lack of energy causes us to slow down our activities and retreat from life. As humans, busy parents, and frantic working adults, we are constantly seeking a way to increase our energy. Too many of us, including some health professionals, don’t understand the true source of our own energy. Health-oriented physicists, however, will tell you that energy is supplied to people, plants, and animals from the atmosphere and the Earth.
 

Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy, and our planet’s magnetic fields. Together, solar energy and the Earth’s electromagnetic energies are transferred or absorbed by living entities like plants and insects, which are then transferred into the bodies of the people and the animals that eat them. People, thus, get energy from the Earth’s magnetic fields, the Earth’s atmosphere, and the plants and animals they eat. The invisible energy sources that power humans come from all around us ‒ indeed, from the sun and Mother Earth herself. So why, if electromagnetic support is all around us, don’t we have enough energy? We are running low on gauss (the measure for magnetic fields). A core of molten metals more than 1,800 miles below the earth’s surface plays a role in the creation of the magnetic field on the surface of the earth. Jeremy Bloxham with the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University has reported a decrease of around 10% in the earth’s magnetic field over the last 150 years.
 

Other research cites projections that the Earth’s magnetic field has steadily weakened over the last 4,000 years. This isn’t surprising since the Earth’s core is cooling, and a change in the magnetic field could naturally result. Estimates show that the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field 4,000 years ago was approximately 2.5 gauss. Today, it is approximately .5 gauss. That’s an 80% decrease (Japanese Medical Journal 75: No. 0745).
 

To make the situation worse, numerous appliances in use interrupt or override the electromagnetic frequencies needed for energy support in our brain and body cells. Most homes, businesses, and communities are amply stocked with these “energy vampires.” Common appliances like computers, microwave ovens, televisions, cell phones, fluorescent lights, digital electrical devices, smart meters, and high-powered electrical lines are typical energy vampires. These energy vampires are not likely to go away soon.
 

People have a critical need for energy to fuel and operate their brains. Specialized cells in the brain called "astrocytes" actually generate electricity. The center of an astrocyte literally radiates with starburst-like extensions. These astrocytes metabolically support neurons in the central nervous system and the brain. The cells in the body are constantly demanding the energy in these astrocytes.
 

Why is this important to know? Because one of the major suppliers of energy to the brain is “running low on gauss.” Your brain and body cells constantly demand energy from external sources to get that supply of the Earth’s magnetic field and the energy from food. Why? To achieve something we call magnetic resonance. When the magnetic frequencies of organs and body tissues are in harmony with the magnetic frequencies in the brain, magnetic resonance is the result. Magnetic resonance is a normal occurrence achieved during periods of sleep. During those brief periods, the body’s ability to repair itself, create enzymes, and increase the immune function is enhanced.
 

The emerging field of health physics is constantly discovering new critical functions related to magnetic resonance. The study and discoveries of quantum health physics may indeed revolutionize the healing arts (Proc. National Academic Science 00:97:6242) (FASEB J 92: Abstract 2433) (Science Week 00: Vol.4) (357).
 

One of the most revolutionary devices developed in the last few years is called the Celluvation Supplement Product Line. It combines homeopathy or energy medicine and physics. Our supplement line contains an ingenious bit of future technology that boosts the various electromagnetic frequency levels of organs and body tissues in people, animals, plants, and liquids. Because living organisms are water-based, they readily “absorb” the electromagnetic support frequencies offered by the Celluvation Product Line. Water has an amazing memory for frequency and can carry 400,000 levels of information. Liquids and foods, when energized by our proprietary process and then ingested, will transfer the frequencies into the body.
 

You may already be familiar with water memory. Have you ever left aromatic foods like onions or garlic uncovered in the refrigerator? If an open container of water was in the vicinity, that water absorbed the food odors, and you could smell and taste the transfer of those food odors when you drank the water. Water will also absorb electromagnetic frequencies. Just as water absorbs odors, it can also absorb the same electromagnetic energy frequencies your body uses. When drinking Celluvation Supplements, you are transferring the frequencies to the body with energy. The Celluvation Product Line is a convenient way to supplement the body’s electromagnetic energy needs.
 

Common sense indicates that plants and insects, which draw electromagnetic energy directly from the Earth, would be the first organisms affected by electromagnetic deficiencies. When the plants and insects that feed on higher life forms are energy deficient, the higher life forms that feed upon them become more deficient in bioenergy. Once this energy-deficient cascade begins, one change will cause another. The cause-and-effect process that begins with the cascade of depleted wellness is obvious to even the most casual observer. Asthma has increased by up to 14% annually; diabetes is at an all-time high. Cancer and heart disease are the top two dreaded killer diseases. Autoimmune disorders, allergies, and infertility have spawned entirely new sub-divisions of medicine.

 

Retirement homes and nursing homes are filled with an aging population heavily dependent on medications and a life quality most of us would not choose. Some of the reasons for longevity are obvious: better awareness of sanitation, access to potable water, availability of medical support during emergencies, appropriate housing, access to food and food supplements, and the ability to live in a relatively non-hostile environment.

 

What we haven’t achieved is longevity coupled with greater life quality for the masses, conceivably into the 80s, 90s, and even 100 plus life spans. One of the best opportunities to increase the quality of life at any stage of life is bioenergy.

Our Products Interact with the Fundamental Forces of Nature.
 

Four  fundamental forces with rather different properties have been identified in our present universe.

 

Properties of the Fundamental Forces

  1. The strong interaction is very strong, but very short-ranged. It acts only over a range of 10-13. It is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances.
  2. The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects like repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. It is long-ranged, but much weaker than the strong force. It can be attractive or repulsive and acts only between pieces of matter carrying an electrical charge.
  3. The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. It has a very short range and, as its name indicates, is very weak.
  4. The gravitational force is weak, but very long-ranged. It is always attractive and acts between any two pieces of matter in the universe since mass is its source.

For the Tortoise and the Hare: Gravity Always Wins

These four fundamental forces play central roles in making the universe what it is today, but for the large-scale issues of interest to cosmology, the gravitational force is most important. Two of its basic properties set the gravitational force apart from the other forces: (1) It is long-ranged and thus can act over cosmological distances and (2) it always produces an attractive force between any two pieces of matter in the universe.
 

Thus, although the gravitational force is extremely weak, it wins over cosmological distances and thus is the most important force for understanding the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe.


Unification of the Forces of Nature

Although the fundamental forces in our present universe are distinct with very different characteristics, the current thinking in theoretical physics is that this circumstance was not always so. There is a rather strong belief (although yet to be confirmed experimentally) that in the very early universe when temperatures were very high compared with today’s, the weak, electromagnetic, and strong forces became unified into a single force. Only when the temperature dropped did these forces separate. The strong force separated first and then, at a still lower temperature, the electromagnetic and weak forces separated to leave us with the four distinct forces we see in our present universe.
 

The process of these forces separating from each other is called spontaneous symmetry breaking.

There is further speculation, even less firm, that at even higher temperatures (see the Planck scale below) all four forces unified into a single force. As the temperature dropped again, the gravitational force separated first and then the other three forces separated as described above.
 

The time and temperature scales for this presumed sequential loss of unification are shown in the following table:
 

Loss of Unity in the Forces of Nature

Characterization

Forces Unified

Time Since Beginning

Temperature (GeV)*

All four forces unified

Gravity, Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak

~0

~infinite

Gravity separates (Planck scale)

Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak

10-43 s

1019

Strong force separates (GUTs scale)

Electromagnetic, Weak

10-35 s

1014

Split between weak and electromagnetic forces

None

10-11 s

100

Present universe

None

1010 y

10-12

*Temperature Conversion: 1 GeV = 1.2 x 1013 K

The theories that postulate the unification of these strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces are the grand unified theories (often known as GUTs).
 

The theories that add gravity to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are the superunified theories.

 

The theory that describes the unified electromagnetic and weak interactions is standard electroweak theory, or sometimes just the standard model.
 

The grand unified and superunified theories remain theoretical speculations as yet unproven, but there is strong experimental evidence for the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions in the standard electroweak theory. Although GUTs are not proven experimentally, strong circumstantial evidence suggests that a theory like a grand unified theory is required to make complete sense of the universe. 
 

As we imagine extrapolating the history of the universe backward in time, the big bang theory tells us that the universe becomes denser and hotter, and the relevant distance scales become shorter and shorter.

 

The Planck Scale

However, we have already seen that if the distance scales become short enough (of atomic dimensions or smaller), the theory of quantum mechanics must be used. Therefore, as we extrapolate back in time to the beginning of the universe, eventually we would reach a state of sufficient temperature and density that a full quantum mechanics theory of gravitation would be required. This is called the Planck era, and the corresponding scales of distance, energy, and time are called the Planck scale.

The Planck Scale

Quantity

Value

Planck Mass

1.2 x 1019 GeV/c2

Planck Length

1.6 x 10-33 cm

Planck Time

5.4 x 10-44 s

Planck Temperature

1.4 x 1032 K

The Planck scale corresponds to incredibly small distances (or equivalently, incredibly large energies). The corresponding lengths, energies, temperatures, and times are displayed in the table (the unit GeV stands for 1 billion electron volts of energy).


Quantum Gravitation

The general theory of relativity does not respect the principles of quantum mechanics. What is required then is a theory of gravitation that also is consistent with quantum mechanics. This can be termed a theory of quantum gravitation. Unfortunately, no one has yet understood how to accomplish this very difficult task, and we do not yet have an internally consistent theory of quantum gravity. The most promising present alternative is called superstring theory, but it is not yet clear whether this theory can provide a correct picture of quantum gravitation.
 

The Breakdown of Our Current Laws of Physics

 

Therefore, since we do not yet have a consistent wedding of general relativity to quantum mechanics, the presently understood laws of physics may be expected to break down on the Planck scale, and our standard picture of inflation followed by the big bang says nothing about the universe at those very early times (which would precede inflation). In this respect, we are absolutely certain that our present laws of physics are not complete. However, the Planck scale is so incredibly small that it presumably only has meaning in the initial instants of the creation of the universe. We, for example, have no hope of conducting experiments to test the Planck scale in any present or conceivable future experiment.